Logistics refers to the realization of raw materials, semi-finished products, finished products or related information through transportation, storage, distribution and other methods in order to meet customer needs and complete at a lower cost and efficiently. The whole process of implementation and management. Logistics is a system that controls raw materials, finished products, finished products and information, starting from supply through various intermediate links of transfer and ownership, and reaching the end consumer's physical movement in order to achieve the clear goal of the organization. Modern logistics is a product of economic globalization and an important service industry that promotes economic globalization. The world's modern logistics industry is showing steady growth. Europe, the United States, and Japan have become important logistics bases worldwide.
China's logistics industry started late. With the rapid development of the national economy, China's logistics industry has maintained a rapid growth rate, the logistics system has been continuously improved, and the industry has become increasingly mature and standardized.
Seven major components: transportation, storage, packaging, handling, circulation processing, distribution, and related logistics information.
The specific content includes the following aspects: user service, demand forecasting, order processing, distribution, inventory control, transportation, warehouse management, factory and warehouse layout and location, handling, procurement, packaging, intelligence information.
Use facilities and tools to move items from one point to another in logistics activities.
Inventory control: the logistics operation activity of controlling, classifying and managing inventory quantity and structure.
Packaging is the general name of containers, materials, and auxiliary materials used in certain technical aspects to protect products, facilitate storage and transportation, and promote sales during the circulation process. It also refers to the operation activities of applying certain technical methods in the process of using containers, materials and auxiliary materials to achieve the above-mentioned purposes.
Handling is a logistics operation that mainly moves items horizontally in the same place. Handling is an operation performed for the needs of product transportation and storage.
5. Circulation processing
Distribution processing is the general term for simple operations such as packaging, dividing, measuring, sorting, marking, tagging, and assembling as needed during the process from the place of production to the place of use.
6. Information management
Collect and process logistics-related plans, forecasts, dynamic information and information related to production, market, cost, etc., so that logistics activities can proceed effectively and smoothly.
In the definition of the Chinese national standard "Logistics Terminology", it is pointed out that logistics is the physical flow process of goods from the place of supply to the place of receiving. According to actual needs, transportation, storage, loading and unloading, handling, packaging, circulation processing, distribution, recycling, information Basic functions such as processing are combined organically.
The "thing" in the logistics is the part of the material material in the world of material material that has the characteristics of material entities and can be physically displaced. "Flow" is a physical movement. This movement has its limited meaning, which is based on the earth. The physical movement relative to the earth is called "displacement." The range of flow can be a large geographical area, or it can be a microscopic movement in the same area and in the same environment, and a small range of displacement. The combination of "and" flow" is an advanced form of movement based on natural movement. Its interconnection is between economic goals and real objects, between military goals and real objects, and even in a certain social purpose and Between real objects, look for the law of movement. Therefore, logistics is not only a combination of "things" and "flows" under the above-mentioned limited conditions, but more importantly, it is a combination limited to military, economic, and social conditions, and observations of things from the military, economic, and social perspectives Transportation meets certain military, economic and social requirements.
Modern logistics not only simply considers the distribution of goods from the producer to the consumer, but also considers the procurement of raw materials from the supplier to the producer, as well as the producer's own transportation, storage and information in the product manufacturing process. The issue of comprehensively improving economic benefits and efficiency. Therefore, modern logistics is a strategic measure that aims to meet the needs of consumers and unify the market conditions such as manufacturing, transportation, and sales. Compared with the concept of traditional logistics that only regards it as a "logistics support system" and "a bridge role in sales activities", it has further meaning in depth and breadth.
Generally speaking, logistics is an activity that includes basic functions such as transportation, handling, storage, custody, packaging, loading and unloading, circulation processing, and logistics information processing. It is an activity that flows from a supply place to a receiving place to meet social needs. Economic activity.
Edit the purpose of this paragraph
In the past, the purpose of logistics management was to achieve the established level of customer service at the lowest possible total cost, that is, to seek a dynamic balance between service advantages and cost advantages, and thereby create strategic advantages for enterprises in competition . According to this goal, the basic problem to be solved by logistics management is simply to provide the right products to customers at the right time and at the right place in the right quantity and at the right price.
Logistics management emphasizes the use of systematic methods to solve problems. Modern logistics is usually considered to be composed of transportation, storage, packaging, loading and unloading, circulation processing, distribution and information. Each link originally had its own functions, interests and concepts. The systematic approach is to use modern management methods and modern technology to share overall information in all links, and to organize and manage all links as an integrated system, so that the system can provide competition with the lowest possible total cost. Advantage of customer service. The systematic approach believes that the benefits of the system are not simply the sum of the benefits of their individual links. The systematic approach means that for a certain aspect of the problem, all influencing factors must be analyzed and evaluated. Starting from this idea, the logistics system does not simply pursue lower costs in each link, because the benefits of each link in the logistics have a tendency to influence and restrict each other, and there is a relationship of alternating vulnerability. For example, excessive emphasis on saving packaging materials may increase transportation and handling costs due to their prone to damage. Therefore, the systematic approach emphasizes the need to analyze the total cost, as well as avoid the analysis of sub-optimal effects and cost trade-off applications, in order to achieve a lower total cost while meeting the established level of customer service.